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Q: In demo version the raw data for the pole figure contains the data from 0 to 90 deg alpha angle tilt. In our pole figure data obtained by reflection method we get data only from 0 to 75 deg as at higher angles the beam is parallel to the sample surface leading to defocussing. Kindly clarify if the incomplete pole figure data obtained by us by back reflection method is enough for analysis.
A: Yes, you can use incomplete pole figures without any problem. The LaboTex program accepts smaler pole distances then 90 deg. It can be 85, 80, 75, and so on... You can cut off the pole figure in the center as well, and start the pole distance not from 0, but from 5, 10, 15.... deg. (for the transmision technique)
Q: At each alpha tilt angle we get the background values. There is no mention in the software how to do the background correction by using these values. Also the raw data does not give the background values in your case.
A: In demo version we have not used the background values but, on the whole, if you check the structure of EPF file (see HELP menu) you will notice that LaboTex program accepts the background data.
Q: We need to do the ODF for the HCP metals like Titanium, Zirconium and some cubic metals like steels. We may not be needing the other crystal geometry.
A: The LaboTex program calculates ODF for all crystal symmetries. You can use whichever you wish.
Q: Max intensity value of PF data which is obtained by X-ray machine is different from the one appearing on the computer screen of LABOTEX PF analysis. Any reason ?
A: Experimental pole figures obtained from X-ray diffraction are unnormalized. measured intensities depend on type of X-ray source, type of a counter, colimating system, absorption properties of measured material and so on. So, pole figures from X-ray machine can not be comparable to each other. Only in ODF calculation process pole figures can be normalysed. Pole figures used in LaboTex program are of two types: I - approximately normalysed : .CPF II - precisely normalysed: .NPF, .RPF, and .APF Pole figures (also max intensities) from X-ray and .EPF and .CPF have usually different intensities than pole figures of type II (.NPF, .RPF, and .APF). All comparisions between pole figures should be done inside pole figures of type II ! Quantitative analysis can be made using only normalyzed pole figures !
Q: Does the accuracy, or I can say reliability, of PF-to-ODF conversion depend on the type of the feature of the textures concerned ? For example, is there any difference in the accuracy between Goss and cube oriented textures ?
A: No, accuracy of different texture components does not depend on the type of texture component in calculation by ADC method (LaboTex program).
Q: Is the algorithm for calculation of ODF's different from the 'WIMV' algorithm in the POPLA package?
A: The algorithm used in LaboTex program is different from the WIMV method. In Labotex program is used an original ADC algorithm. Similarities in WIMV and ADC methods:
  • both belong to the same group of so called direct methods (or discrete methods) in opposition to Fourier series methods
  • both use iteration procedures
Differences between ADC and WIMV methods:
  • different principles of the iteration procedure
  • different principles of "ghosts" correction
See:
  • H.-R. Wenk, K. Pawlik, J. Pospiech and J.S. Kallend (1994) Deconvolution of superposed pole figures by discrete ODF methods: Comparison of ADC and WIMV for quartz and calcite with trigonal crystal and triclinic specimen symmetry. Textures and Microstructures 22, 233-260.
  • U. F. Kocks, C. N. Tomi, H. R. Wenk, "Texture and Anisotropy", Cambridge University Press
  • "... The strong and weak points of each method are examined showing that the iterative discrete methods (ADC and WIMV) are better suited for the reproduction of the texture function in the present case. In comparing these two discrete methods, it is evidenced that the ADC method reproduces more accurately both the experimental and synthetic texture functions over the entire range of texture sharpness considered ..." F.Caleyo, T.Baudin, M.H.Mathon and R.Penelle - Comparison of several methods for the reproduction of the orientation distribution function from pole figures in medium to strong textured materials - Eur. Phys. J. AP 15 (2001), p85-96 Abstract
  • Principles of the ADC method are described in the reference papers: The ADC Method References
  • Q: I am looking for a better reference or way to index ODF patterns. Mostly, I use figures from Bunge's book which show low index orientations. Working with steel, I come across many higher order reflections like {554}<225> and I can calculate these angles if I know what to look for, but its very tedious to index some higher order reflections by guessing what they might be and then calculating the angles- checking, reguessing, calulating... I would like a program which takes inputs of Euler angles and lists the closest {hkl} indices. I guess I'll program something like this unless anyone can suggest a better method or point me towards something that has already been written.
    A: Your problem of indexing ODF patterns can be solved using LaboTex. LaboTex is performing texture analysis using pole figures and ODF. LaboTex may doing it simulatonously!
    Q: What indices I should use for hexagonal symmetry?
    A: In case of hexagonal symmetry you should transform {hkil} ---> {hkl} by excluding indice {i} ! e.g.: {01-11} to {011};
  • for pole figure, if first or second indice is negative, please rearrange it so that the first two indices are positive and exclude the third index (which is the negative sum of the first two). The last index remains the same. e.g. {-2110} to {11-20} and final {110};
  • for crystal directions < uvtw > ==> < UVW > please calculate: U=u-t V=v-t W=w e.g. <11-20> to <330> and final <110>; Please, check this for calculate orientation {0,1,-1,1} <2,-1,-1,0> : {0,1,-1,1} <2,-1,-1,0> ==> {0,1,1}<1,0,0>
  • Q: The format of the raw data as we get is different than the one used by you. How do you propose to change the data structure so that it can be suitable for the software.
    A: If format your data is absent in LaboTex (see: Edit --> LaboTex Options ---> Data Formats), I have two suggestions:
    • Please, take a look at the description of data file structure in the HELP menu of LaboTex Demo. See the "LaboTex Format of Experimental Data" option and the examples of Filename.EPF , Filename.COR and Filename.POW Then you can transform your data to EPF and COR type format. or:
    • You can send us examples of your data files and LaboSoft team will prepare the LaboTex input to accept your data format. (free of charge)
    Q: If I can create CPF file myself because we would like to calculate the ODF with pole figures which have been multiplied by correctif factors and which were not re-normalised after this multiplication.
    A: .CPF files are binary files with complicated structure. So I give you another suggestions:
    • You can make your special data as a 'PPF' file (please, check in help). This file does not include background data and you do not need to use .COR file.
    • You can use your special pole figures as 'EPF' file including at the end of file the proper number of "0" values for the beckground for each pole figure. Remember to add the lines describing data (at the begining of the file) for each pole figure background. In that case you need to make a 'COR' file including correction coefficients as "1".
    Q: What should I do to read Rigaku data?
    A: For Rigaku data files, please remember:
    • use only one pole figure in one file,
    • extension of file has to be ASC (for example: 53110.ASC, 53200.ASC, 53211.ASC)
    • to make ASC files accessible for creation of CPF files you should:
      • select EDIT menu in LaboTex
      • select LaboTex Options
      • select Data Formats
      • select "ASC - Rigaku ASC format (1PF/file)" in one of "selection windows" 4 - 7
    • select "new sample" (from File menu or third icon from toolbar), select "ASC" data format, if you do not use defocusing correction, please select "off" for "Correction"
    • select ASC pole figures files by the mouse clicking
    • select the proper crystal symmetry for your sample
    Q: Could you please let me know if Labo Tex for windows could be used for files generated with Bruker equipment?
    A: Yes (File version 1 and 2).Use only one pole figure in one file (files extension: UXD). "_sample" has to contain Miller indices of PF (in triangle brackets) for example: "Ir<111>".
    Q: When using ASC format only one PF file can be inputed and other APF can be calculated by the soft. Is that meant that it is not necessary to measure other PFs experimentally? Can I input other PF such as 200 and 112, besides the 110 in BCC structure? But in the EPF format several PFs can be input simultaneously.How about the difference in the EPF and ASC cases?
    A: It is possible use more PFs (files).You may use 110,200 and 112 PFs simultaneously.In "New Sample" dialog box select (click mouse) ASC files simultaneously holding CTRL (control) key!!!. Calculation ODF from one PF not ever is enough!. If it is possible you should use more PF.
    Q: Do you have any simple way to transfer the ASC into EPF format, with 8 columns?
    A: When you create CPF file from ASC files LaboTex convert ASC files to the EPF/POW or PPF files. This files you can find in LaboTex temporary directory (e.g C:\Labotex2\user\username.LAB\tmp...)
    Q: As for the background data, I find no way to input to the file when a ASC has been input. Can the background data only be used in the EPF format?
    A: Usually measured pole figures must be corrected according to the background and defocusing absorption. So, you should measure these values for your samples.These both corrections of raw pole figures data, sometimes are done by software of experimental x-ray device (especially in the case of using PSD-Position Sensitive Detector). You should check what case is in your x-ray device ? Inside the ASC file format you can find two places in which the background values can be included. Please find the lines with words: *LOW , *HIGH. In these places there are zero values in your files. You should decide if this is correct or you must read the manual of your x-ray device to find out how to measure and include the background values to your ASC files in positions *LOW and *HIGH inside the files.
    Q: I am studying the texture in steels. Which correction file and the symmetry type should I choose in inputing the data?
    A: For defocusing correction you should measure the pole figures of the powder sample (from the same material as the "textured samples" - in your case steel). The powder sample is treated as "non texture" sample, which help to find out the absorption curve for defocusing correction. The files of the powder sample should have extension POW (LaboTex format) or ASC (Rigaku format), and should be included in COR directory (for proper user) of LaboTex. In your case of the steel samples you should choose the O-cubic symmetry. All symmetries are indicated according to the Schoenfliess symbols (International Tables for Crystallography - ed.T.Hanhn - 1983, D.Reidel publishing company. Dordrecht/Boston).
    Q: As for the powder sample should I measure that in the same condition with the ordinary ones?
    A: Yes.
    Q: Can I choose the Corr file also in the ASC format?
    A: Yes.
    Q: What does "Azimuthal angle steps different for pole figures. Pole figures {1 1 0}. ... CPF file will not be created." mean?
    A: In actual version of LaboTex (2.0,2.1)the step of polar angle (alpha) has to be equal the step of azimuthal angle (beta) (permissible values: 1.0, 1.2, 1.25, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.75, 5.0, 6.0, 7.5, 10.0). In your case these angle steps are different: 2.0 and 5.0. You should measure with the grid of the same alpha and beta steps. Only in the case of background data, alpha step can be different than beta step. But the alpha step for the texture data and the alpha step for the background must be equal !
    Q: How can I have the numerical values of the odf as we had in the file .pod before ? We need this values for our calculations to determine the stored energy.
    A: This option is in version 2.1 (menu File-->ODF export). Upgrade version 2.0 to 2.1 is free of charge by e-mail.
    Q: When LaboTex reads my data file (sample.epf) I get a message "Error: Improper data. Check data file". Please check my input data file.
    A: Your data file is in popLA format, which has the same extension as LaboTex files (.EPF). To make popLA *.EPF files accessible for creation of CPF files you should:
    • select EDIT menu in LaboTex,
    • select LaboTex Options,
    • select Data Formats,
    • select "EPF - popLA EPF files format" in one of "selection windows",
    • select "new sample" (from File menu or third icon from toolbar),
    • select "epf" (small letter!!!) data format (in this format data are after correction),
    • now select your data file by the mouse clicking,
    • select the proper crystal symmetry for your sample.
    Q: How does LaboTex define sample and coordinate system?
    A: LaboTex convention (from the version 2.1.006): (See for figure.)
    • X,Y,Z axis are perpendicular to each other,
    • [100] axis is in XZ plane,
    • Z axis is paralel to the [001] crystallographic axis,
    • Crystal coordinate system and sample coordinate system should be at the same order i.e. both right-handed or both left-handed,
    • Bunge definition of Euler angles.
    Q: LaboTex shows bad Euler angles for orientation (01-12)<2-201>= (012)<2-21>={38.11,42.61,0.0}. From my diagram should be :{38,43,30} (Zr Alloy - hexagonal system).
    A: Your diagram is made in different convention than LaboTex. In hexagonal system (for hexagonal division :a=b,c(non equal a),alpha=beta=90,gamma=120) are used two convetions for sample and coordinate system. See for figure. It is a reason of a difference between values of Phi2 angle about 30. (there is the possibility of the choice of the axial convention in hexagonal system in LaboTex from version 2.1.008 !!!)
    Q: I have cell parameters for trigonal system: a=b=c, alpha=beta=gamma <120. In example for trigonal system LaboTex has the same cell parameters as for hexagonal system. Is it error?
    A: No. Rhombohedral crystal can always be described in term of hexagonal axes. In trigonal division of hexagonal system are used two conventions (1) rhombohedral axes (as for your data) and (2) hexagonal axes. LaboTex use hexagonal axes and cell parameters has to be the same as for hexagonal division. Details about convention of cell parameters used in LaboTex you can find in technical report (PDF document, 4.3MB): "Pole Figures: Plot and Registration Conventions"
    Q: The volume fraction calculated in the software is not agree with I have calculated. I calculated it by the C coefficence from texture data. And can you tell me how you calculate it ?
    A: The results of volume fraction calcuation can be different because of:
    • If you use C coefficients with l=22 or l=34 in this case of strong texture peaks you have truncation error of the Fourier series and this is source of error in volume fraction calculation
    • Using C coefficients in reality you calculate the volume of the ideal model components not your real experimental texture peaks. This is the second source of error.
    • In LaboTex software we do not have truncation error of the peaks because we do not use harmonic series (the ODF calculation is based on ADC method which calculate real ODF peaks not truncated).
    • In LaboTex software we calculate volume fraction by integration of real texture peaks on ODF (we do not use Gauss models). Additionaly user can decide about integration width of the peak in 3 Euler angles independently. In the case of C coeffictiens you are not able to change different width of the Gauss model in the 3 Euler angles.
    • You can see the comparison of different ODF calculation methods (including ADC method which is the base of the LaboTex software) which are described in the reference papers: The ADC Method References
    Q: I would like to use the same values of contour pole density in analysis of ODF of several samples. Is it possible in your program?
    A: You can plot contour lines by any scale in LaboTex program. To do this:
    • plot any PF, ODF, or INV object using automatic contours
    • press "i" icon on the program toolbar
    • change the "AUTOMATIC" to "MANUAL" option in "PF isolines mode/ Load PF isolines"
    • edit all isolines values you want in "isolines/values" windows
    • mark box "Value" (or/and "Color", "State")
    • press the "Save PF Isolines" and save the isolines to the file
    • any time you want, you can load this isolines from the file
    Q: How do you get the COR file? Where is it generated? Can we get it from the LaboSoft? Can I use our dbf file instead of the cor file?
    A: The COR files are generated from the measurements of "texture" of powder samples (used as POW files in LaboTex - see HELP). The DBF files can be used instead of COR files (we have just included this option to the LaboTex).
    Q: What is meaning of rotation of PF step, lower range upper range?
    A: You can rotate pole figures around the normal axis before ODF calculation. Sometimes it is useful to correct the sample coordinates. Lower and upper range means the abillity to cut off the pole distance range from both sides (in the centre and in the maximum distance). Attention ! Rotation and cut off you can use simultaneously for all pole figures, or separately for each one. Check the apprropriate switch !
    Q: How difficult is it to use the x-ray data for every two degree scan! The reason is that we do a lot of work on textured thin films and 1 or 2 degrees are what would be ideal for us!
    A: There is no problem. LaboTex is able to use data measured with 1 or 2 deg. step. The ODF calculation time will be longer of course, because the data set (number od data) is bigger in that case.
    Q: There is a 90? rotation between the PF plotted using my old texture software and LaboTex...
    A: There are two questions concerning this problem: A) Different ways of pole figures plotting:
    • clockwise rotation from the NS direction
    • counterclockwise rotation from the NS direction
    • clockwise rotation from the WE direction
    • counterclockwise rotation from the WE direction
    LaboTex uses the pole figures presentation as in point A.1. If ODF from LaboTex and ODF from your old software are the same then difference is only in pole figure presentation (different pole figures plotting convention). If ODF from LaboTex and ODF from your old texture software are different then pole figures measurements convention are different. B) Different ways of registration of pole figures in the dependence from the motion of the texture goniometer are :
    • clockwise rotation from the RD direction
    • counterclockwise rotation from the RD direction
    • clockwise rotation from the TD direction
    • counterclockwise rotation from the TD direction
      • LaboTex uses convention B.1. Details about adjustment of LaboTex to different plot and registration conventions you can find in technical report (PDF document, 4.3MB): "Pole Figures: Plot and Registration Conventions"
    Q: I didn't find some information about how to use the delta Phi1, Phi, Phi2 range while the calculation of the quantitative texture analysis. If for example I choose a phi integration range of 20? for a phi angle of 45?, it means that the calulation will integrate in phi between 25 and 65?,or between 35 and 55? ?
    A: In quantitative analysis DeltaPhi1, DeltaPhi and DeltaPhi2 mean the half widh of the integration range arround chosen orientation. So, if orientation is PHI1, PHI, PHI2, then the volume fraction is integrating in the range: [PHI1 - DeltaPhi1 , PHI1 + DeltaPhi1] [PHI - DeltaPhi , PHI + DeltaPhi ] [PHI2 - DeltaPhi2 , PHI2 + DeltaPhi2] Of course you can chose different Delta for each Euler angle and for each selected orientation (using view of the orientation profiles in each Euler angle cross section). Calculation will integrate in phi between 25 and 65? for your example.
    Q: How I can make defocussing correction?
    A: The best way for defocussing correction is measurement of "random" sample. First, you should make measurement of "random" sample analogically as normal sample. "Random" sample has to be made from the same or similar material as material of your sample. LaboTex input files with pole figures of sample and files with pole figures of "random" sample simultaneously. Files with pole figures of "random" sample are input from different list in the same dialog window. Preparation of good quality "random" sample is difficult. LaboSoft offers set of "random" samples (texture and strain free). For details see http://labotex.com/prices.htm
    Q: How I can check quality of my texture measurement?
    A: The best wey in this case are measurements of texture standards. LaboSoft offers texture standards about different sample symmetry which contain also "random" sample. Standards have a Certificate from Accredited Testing Laboratorie. For details see: http://labotex.com/prices.htm .
    Q: Does LaboTex cooperate with VPSC texture modelling software packages?
    A: Yes. Our users use LaboTex in cooperation with VPSC for texture modelling. Results of modelling are input to LaboTex. You can see for example: http://www.kf.ustu.ru/conf/art/5sec/5-14.doc
    Q: When I run the HASP Protect Key Instalation from the windows system, a message apears: "user has no access to the database registry 0x20 10000 0x0 0x0" and the installation is stopped.
    A: Before installation of the HASP Protect Key on NT/2000/XP system you should:
    • Switch off your PC with Win NT/2000/XP system.
    • Install HASP Protect Key to the parallel printer port in PC.
    • Switch on your PC with Win NT/2000/XP system.
    • Very important !!! Login to the NT/2000/XP system as Administrator.
    • As Administrator install HASP device driver. Remember to reboot the computer after complete HASP installation.
    • Now, you can login every time to the NT/2000/XP system as a ordinary user and run Labotex program.